Friday, July 13, 2012


Master Yoon circa 1940's Korea
 The founder of the Jung Ang YMCA Kwon Beop Bu was Master Yoon Byung-in. Master Yoon’s grandfather, Yoon Young-hyun, was from the Yang Ban (Noble) class in South Korea. During the later part of the Yi Dynasty (1392-1910A.D.), the grandfather was the government appointed Country Chief of the Tong-young and Gojae Island Districts. When Imperial Japan invaded Korea in 1909, Grandfather Yoon Young-hyun was pushed out of his government position. To avoid any trouble with the Japanese forces he took his family to Manchuria. His grandson, Master Yoon, was born on May 18, 1920 in Mu-sun, Bong-Chon, Manchuria.

Master Yoon began his academic studies at Shin-kyoung elementary school and later attended
Youn-byun middle school. During his elementary school days he began studies of Chuan-fa under the guidance of a Mongolian instructor. According to his 2nd cousin, Yoon Byung-bu, most Chuan-fa instructors in the area were from Mongolia at that time. He also described Master Yoon as, “very bright, sincere, quiet, always helping people. Typical martial artist.” Master Yoon continued his studies of Chuan-fa through elementary and middle school. His cousin adds, “He was very strong. If he ever had to fight, he would never seriously hurt anyone. He just did enough to make them stop.”
Despite having a relatively peaceful childhood, Master Yoon suffered a severe injury to his right
hand. One winter while huddling around a neighborhood fire for warmth, he was shoved forward
into the fire. He stopped his body from getting burned at the expense of his right hand being
immersed in the hot coals. Unfortunately, there were no doctors in the area to help and he ended
up losing ½ of the length of his fingers. To hide his injury, Master Yoon always wore white gloves in public and while instructing classes. Later, his students would wear white gloves during training to show respect for him.

In 1938, Master Yoon graduated from high school and was chosen by his family to study Colonial Agriculture at Nihon University in Tokyo, Japan. During his academic career at Nihon University, he had the opportunity to meet karate Master Toyama Kanken (student of Yasutsune “Anko” Itosu) through an interesting situation. Master Toyama Kanken was faculty at Nihon University and was Sensei (Teacher) for the university karate club. Some of the Korean students were allowed to join the club and learn karate. One of the Korean students decided to spend additional time with his college sweetheart and began to miss karate club practices. This angered the Japanese karate students and they pursued the Korean student and beat him up. The Korean student knew about Master Yoon’s practice of Chuan-fa, as he was routinely seen conditioning himself by striking a large tree in the university courtyard. The tree eventually started leaning a little bit towards the ground from his training. The Korean student begged Master Yoon for help against the karate toughs. He asked, “You are a Korean, I am a Korean, will you please help me to not get beat up?”

Sensei Toyama Kanken
He agreed and upon the next intended beating from the Japanese karate students, Master Yoon
sprung into action using Chuan-fa. He skillfully deflected and evaded the karate students’ strikes
and kicks to the point that they gave up and ran back to tell their teacher about what happened.
Master Toyama Kanken was an open-minded person and invited Master Yoon to tell him about the skillful non-karate martial art he used against his students. He explained to Master Toyama about his Chuan-fa education in Manchuria. Master Toyama appreciated the Chuan-fa background since he (Master Toyama) had studied Chuan-fa in Taiwan for 7 years, previously. They decided to exchange knowledge; Master Yoon would teach Toyama Kanken Chuan-fa and Master Toyama would teach Master Yoon his Shudokan karate.

Master Yoon was assistant to Toyama Kanken at the university karate club and recognized as a 4th degree black belt by Master Toyama. Master Toyama was a 5th degree black belt at that time, which made Master Yoon the highest ranked member at the karate club.
When the Japanese military surrendered on August 15, 1945, marking the end of a 36-year
occupation of Korea, Master Yoon returned to Korea and settled in the Chung-yang Rhee area in
Seoul. He had two notable friends from the karate club at Nihon University living nearby: Jeun Sang-seop and Yoon Kwe-byung (Yoon Hui-Byung). Jeun Sang-seop was head of the karate club within the Cho-sun Yunmoo-Kwan Yudo School located in Seoul, Korea.

The Cho-sun Yunmoo-Kwan was the Korean main branch and representative of the Japanese Kodokan (Lecturing Way School) judo during this time. Jeun Sang-seop invited Master Yoon to teach kwon beop (chuan-fa) and karate at the Cho-sun Yunmoo-Kwan. He taught with Jeun Sang-seop at the club for 6 months before he (Master Yoon Byung-In) was invited to teach at the Cho-Sun Jung Ang YMCA in Seoul, Korea. In the instructor’s directory of Toyama Kanken’s book published in the early 1950’s, Master Yoon is listed as Chief Instructor of the Cho-Sun YMCA. The book also listed Yoon Kwe-byung (Yoon Hui-Byung) as chief instructor of the Jido-Kwan (Way Of Wisdom School) in Seoul, Korea. Both Master Yoon (Byung-in) and Yoon Kwe-byung (Yoon Hui-Byung) were listed at 4th dan black belt in the directory. In 1959, the 2nd edition of Toyama Kanken’s book, Yoon Byung-in is listed as Chief Instructor of the Seoul, Korea dojang and Yoon Kwe-byung (Yoon Hui-Byung) is listed as Chief Instructor of the Seoul, Korea Hanmoo-Kwan (Korean People’s Martial Art school). Hanmoo-kwan was also the name of the school Yoon Kwe-byung (Yoon Hui-Byung) established while living in Japan.

Master Yoon Byung-in taught in many places in addition to the Jung Ang YMCA Kwon Beop Bu. He became faculty at Sung-Kyun Kwan University and Kyoung-Nong Agricultural College, teaching chuan-fa and karate. He was also appointed as bodyguard of 1st Korean President Syng-mahn Rhee, but he refused the appointment. One reason for his refusal was because of the requirement to salute (military-style with the right hand) to President Rhee. Master Yoon was missing fingers on his right hand from the injury during his youth and wanted to avoid the embarrassment.
In June 1950, the Korean War started and South Korea was in turmoil. In August 1950, Yoon Byung-in’s older brother Yoon Byung-du showed up as a Captain in the North Korean Army. He told Yoon Byung-in, “I am your older brother and you must come with me.” Yoon Byung-in was then taken to North Korea by his brother. At this time, all Jung Ang YMCA Kwon Beop Bu students lost communication with Master Yoon and many speculations were made about his disappearance. Several of Master Yoon’s students continued instructing following his disappearance: Master Lee Nam-sok, Master Hong Jong-pyo and Master Park, Chul-hee.

The Jung Ang YMCA Central building was completely destroyed by bombs from U.S. warplanes in the late part of 1950 or 1951. So, the Jung Ang YMCA Kwon Beop Bu was temporarily closed until 1952. In 1952, Master Lee Nam-sok had Jung Ang YMCA Kwon Beop Bu students transfer to training space provided by the Postal Administration Department he used for his Cheshin-Bu (Postal Administration Department Club). When the Jung Ang YMCA Kwon Beop Bu students transferred to his club, Master Lee changed the club’s name to “Changmoo-Kwan” (Brighten Martial Art School). Changmoo-Kwan was a name mentioned by Master Yoon Byung-in when he was still in South Korea. Later, Master Lee lost use of the training space at the

Postal Administration Department and had to relocate the Changmoo-Kwan. The Changmoo-Kwan first moved to the Mukyo-dong area in Seoul, then to the Kangmoo-Kwan Yudo dojang in the Kyungwoon-Dong area from 1958-63.
Both Masters Hong Jong-pyo and Park Chul-hee trained and taught at the Changmoo-Kwan until
1956. In 1956, Master Hong Jong-pyo established a separate school called “Kangduk Won”
(Academy Teaching Virtue). Because he was very busy making a living, Master Hong Jongpyo didn’t have time to operate the school and Master Park Chul-hee became chief instructor of the Kangduk Won. Master Hong continued instructing several days per week at the Kangduk Won.
The Kangduk Won moved seven times from 1956 to 1964.
1. Shinsul-Dong, East Seoul, Korea
2. Chungjin-Dong, Seoul, Korea (Inside the Yunmoo-Kwan Yudo dojang)
3. Youngchun Seodae-Mun area (Inside the training center for prison officers)
4. Ulji-ro area (Inside a Wrestling gymnasium)
5. Chungshin-Dong (Near the Seoul National University Law School)
6. Shinsul-Dong, East Seoul Korea
7. Dongdae-Mun, East Seoul, Korea (Inside the Yunmoo-Kwan Yudo dojang)
8. SeoDae-Mun area (In front of the police station)

By 1957, Master Lee Nam-sok wasn’t teaching much at the Changmoo-Kwan and placed 3rd Dan Kim Pyung-soo in charge of instructing the majority of the classes. Kim Pyung-soo wanted to continue learning past the 3rd dan level, but couldn’t find anyone at the Changmoo-Kwan to instruct him. So, he taught at the Changmoo-Kwan and would take classes as a student at the Kangduk Won since they both shared the same lineage and curriculum. Kim Soon-bae, an assistant instructor for Master Lee Nam-sok at the Changmoo-Kwan headquarters dojang, found this out and told Kim Pyung-soo he had to choose only 1 dojang, not both. Kim Pyung-soo chose to stay at the Kangduk Won and be a student. Because of Kim Pyung-soo’s reputation as a teacher and martial artist many of the Changmoo-Kwan Black Belts followed him and joined the Kangduk Won dojang.



Shudokan Karate 
  • Kibon Hyung 1-3
  • Pyung Ahn 1-5
  • Shipsoo
  • Balsek Dae
  • Balsek So
  • Chulki Hyung 1-3
  • No Hai
  • Wan Shu
  • Ahm Hak
  • Kong Sang Kun
  • Cha-un
  • Ban Wol
  • Oh Ship Sa BoJin Soo
  • Ni Jushi Ho
  • Myong Kyung 
  • Ship Pal

  • Dan Kwon
  • Doju San
  • Jang Kwon
  • Tai-jo Kwon
  • So Ho Yon
  • Palgi Kwon
  • Cheong-Ryong Kwon
  • Kum Kang Kwon
  • Han Son Dae Ryon
  • Dalryon-Beup
  • Chil-Bo Yaksok Dae-ryon

On July 10, 1951 peace talks began between North Korea and the United Nations. On November
25, 1951 the talks resulted in a country being divided at the 38th parallel: North Korea would control the north part of the Korean peninsula (with Soviet Union occupation) and South Korea would control the south (with U.S. occupation). During this time, Master Yoon Byung-in was in a Prisoner of War (POW) camp on Gojae-do Island. Through an interview process POWs could decide where they wanted to go. Unfortunately, during the application process North Korean POW soldiers jumped on Master Yoon preventing him from leaving. His activities are unknown from this time until 1966.
From January 1966 until August 1967, Master Yoon was appointed by the North Korean
government sports committee to teach an intensive Gyuck-Sul (special combat strategy) course to the Moran-Bong physical specialists group (specially selected group) in Pyong-yang, the capital of North Korea. In December 1967, the North Korean government’s International Sports Association told Master Yoon, “Gyuck Sul is not a game or international sport. The government has cancelled the Gyuck Sul program.” He was sent to work at a cement factory in Cheong-jin City, Ham-Gyoung North Province. Master Yoon worked in the cement factory until he died of lung cancer on April 3, 1983.

It is quite a loss that Master Yoon was not utilized as a martial arts instructor to the people of Korea. It was very rare to have a Korean national with a high ranking under a reputable karate instructor in Japan, plus a background in Chinese Chuan-fa. Though Master Yoon provided a rich and diverse curriculum to his students, very few continued his legacy. Most students followed the push towards a unified “Taekwondo” during the 1960’s in Korea. This movement resulted in two organizations for Taekwondo students: 1) The Korean Taekwondo Association, 2) The International Taekwondo Federation.

In 1967, the Korean Taekwondo Association (KTA) created Yudanja (Black Belt) forms for rank advancement. These forms included: Koryo, Kum Gang Hyung, Tae Baek, Pyong Won, Ship Jin, Jee Tae, Cheon Kwon, Han Soo, and Il Yo. In 1972, the KTA required students to learn the new eight Palgue as gup-level forms for rank advancement. In 1974, the KTA became the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) and the eight Tae Guek forms were created for Gup-level students as was a new version of the Yudansha form “Koryo.”
The International Taekwondo Federation (ITF) was created by Choi Hong Hi. Master Choi created a curriculum of 24 forms for his students.

 The Korean TaekwondoAssociation (now WTF)

Yudanja (Black Belt) forms (1967)
  • Koryo
  • Kum-gang Hyung
  • Tae Baek
  • Pyong Won
  • Ship Jin
  • Toi-gye
  • Jee Tae
  • Cheon Kwon
  • Han Soo
  • Il Yo
 Gup Grade forms (KTA) (1972)
  • Palgue hyung 1-8
 Gup-grade forms (WTF) (1974)
  •  Tae Guek hyung 1-8
  •  Koryo 2 (Modern Koryo)
The International Taekwondo Federation (1950)
  • Chon-ji
  • Dan-gun
  • Do-san
  • Won-hyo
  • Yol-kuk
  • Chung-gun
  • Toi-gye
  • Hwa-rang
  • Chung-moo
  • Kwang-gae
  • Po-eun
  • Ge-baek
  • Eui-am
  • Chung-jang
  • Juche
  • Sam-il
  • Yu-sin
  • Choi-yong
  • Youn-Gae
  • Ul-ji
  • Moon-mu
  • So-san
  • Se-jong
  • Tong-Il
To find a Taekwondo school that has preserved Master Yoon Byung-in’s legacy (Changmoo-
Kwan/Kangduk Won), simply look at its list of forms for rank advancement. There should be a
large list of Shudokan karate and Chuan-fa forms required for students. Sometimes these forms are found in addition to the modern Taekwondo forms of the KTA(WTF) or ITF. But, if you find a list of modern forms of the KTA (WTF) or ITF without Shudokan or Chuan-fa forms, then the school is not preserving the Changmoo-Kwan/Kangduk Won curriculum.

One standout that preserves Master Yoon’s legacy is Grandmaster Kim Pyung-soo, who immigrated to Houston, Texas on January 16, 1968.

 In Grandmaster Kim’s martial art system,Chayon-Ryu (Natural Way), students continue to receive direct instruction on the forms and techniques from Master Yoon’s lineage. Grandmaster Kim still teaches at the Chayon-Ryu headquarters dojang in Houston, Texas 6 month a year, and teaches in Busan, South Korea the other 6 months. He may be contacted at:
Hopefully, his students will carry on the rich heritage of Master Yoon and his legacy will live for generations to come.

1) Choi, Hong Hi. TaeKwon Do: The Art Of Self-Defense. Seoul: Daeha, 1965.
2) Choi, Hong Hi. TaeKwon Do (The Korean Art Of Self-Defense). Canada: ITF, 1999.
3) Kim, Soo. Palgue 7-8 Of Tae Kwon Do Hyung Black Belt Requirements. Houston: Kim
Soo, 1980.
4) McLain, Robert. Interview with Kim, Pyung-soo. Rec. July 16, 2006. Digital audio.
5) Kim, Soo and Robert McLain. “Yoon Byung-in Story.” 2006. Kim Soo Karate, Inc. May 3,
2006 <>.
6) Toyama Kanken. Shudokan Karate. 2nd ed. Tokyo: Toyama, 1959.

Contributing Writer:
Robert McLain is a 5th Dan Black Belt under the direct instruction of Grandmaster Kim Pyung-soo and serves as Secretary General of the International Chayon-Ryu Martial Arts Association.
Mr. McLain established the Arlington, Texas branch of The International Chayon-Ryu
Martial Arts Association in 1994. He graduated with a Bachelor Of Science degree from The
University Of Texas at Arlington and Master of Science degree in Geospatial Information Science from UT-Dallas. He held an adjunct faculty position at UT-Arlington for 2 ½ years (1999-2001) while still an undergraduate student. He directed the for-credit “Self-Defense for Women” program through the Kinesiology Department which consisted of 200 students per semester learning Chayon-Ryu self-defense. Since then, he has contributed articles to Black Belt Magazine, been appointed as “Special Correspondent & Photographer” for Taekwondo Times Magazine, written articles for Totally Taekwondo Magazine (London, England) and has worked in the film industry as a fight choreographer. Mr. McLain may be contacted at

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